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Kinds of Foundation in Building Construction
Prior to touching into kinds of foundation, let’s gain an understanding of the meaning of foundation or footing. Almost all of the constructions comprises of two components, one on the top of the ground which is recognized as super structure and the additional sub-structure of the base which exists under the ground level.
Foundation (also known as footing) is described as that component of the construction that links and transfers the burden from the construction to the earth soil. The concrete ground on which the base lies is described as the groundwork bed. The groundwork transfers the burden of the formation and its own weight to the earth such that the final bearing ability of the earth is not surpassed (the deformation breakdown is not acceptable) and the accommodation is acceptable.
All possible construction is offering with groundwork at the base to accomplish the subsequent aims and motives:
- To transmit the burden of the construction across a huge bearing region.
- To carry the bearing exterior at consistent rate so as to shun uneven settlement.
- To put a stop to the indirect motion of the bearing substance.
- To boost the strength of the construction as a total.
Foundations are categorized on the account of burden transference to the floor into 2 subgroups that is shallow foundation and deep foundation.
Shallow Foundation: Shallow foundation are the particular foundations in which the deepness at which the groundwork is positioned is less than the width of the groundwork (D < W). Shallow foundations are normally entitled as spread footing as they transfer the load of the super structure indirectly into the land.
Categorization of Shallow Foundation: On the account of design, the shallow foundations are categorized as:
- Wall Footing
- Remote column or Column Footing
- Joint Footing
- Cantilever / Strap Footing
- Mat / Raft Foundation
Deep Foundation: Deep Foundation are the particular foundations in which the deepness of the groundwork is larger than its width (D>W). The D/W ratio is typically four-five for deep foundation. Dissimilar to shallow foundation, the deep foundation transfers the load of the architecture perpendicularly to the rock strata positioning downwards. Deep foundations are utilized at the time the shallow foundation cannot bear the burden of the structure.
Categorization of Deep Foundation - The mat foundation can be additionally categorized into subsequent kinds:
- Pile Foundation
- Pier Foundation
- Well (Caissons) Foundation